Thursday, December 15, 2005

Virtus and Gynotheosis


The highest virtue among the Romans was virtus. In fact, we get our word virtue from virtus, or more acurately from the latin word vir. Vir means a man. Virtus, by extension, means courage, respect, fairness, humility, dignity, clemency, and piety. Or, in short, manliness. The Romans associated all these qualities with what makes a man a man. They held up this idea of manliness which also meant conforming to the mos maiorum, the customs and ways of the ancestors. Since they figured descent patrilineally, it is in essence men being manly by upholding the ways of men who went before.

The church similarly has well defined gender roles and traits which it ascribes.

Men are told to be strong priesthood holders and to be righteous and upright in all things. They are told that the onus of providing for a family is upon them by divine right. They are told that they are to "preside" over their families. But we are also constantly told that we are unworthy. Discussions about pornography, in my ward atleast, imply that all men are unable to prevent themselves from seeking out internet porn. Discussions abound regarding how computers ought to be out in the open so that we are not tempted. We are told that we ought to have our wives put passwords on the computer, so that we can only use it when they allow us. This discourse isn't even aimed at those with porn addictions, but all men. So why the negativity? We hear the counsel to stay away from porn pretty often, so I guess it must be a widespread problem. But the way the discourse is being held there isnt any distinguishing between the porn looking men, and the non porn looking men. We all need artificial restraint.

While that is unfair and casts men in a light that is unfavorable, the real problem is with how the church treats women. We are told constantly about how amazing women are. They are lauded in conference and elsewhere. We are told somewhat jokingly that a bishop is chosen by picking the most righteous member of the ward and then calling her husband. There is no doubt that for the most part the women of this church are righteous and upright, but so are the men. So why the rhetoric? If women were equal, then why do we need to talk about how great they are? It seems clear the roles of men and women aren't equal in this church. Whether that's bad or not I suppose is a different question. So the problem comes with pacification. Whether it is intended or not, the constant reinforcement of female superiority keeps most of them from ever asking for equality. It is similar to native americans being depicted as the noble savage. As long as they are held up as better in some way then they won't ask for more. Alternatively, those with the power to change their position for the better will see no need.

So what can be done? Or, does something need to be done at all?

Friday, December 09, 2005

Morality and Cicero


Marcus Tullius Cicero, known typically as Cicero, was the greatest Roman orator. He also was a philosopher and wrote long essays about how to be moral and how to live a happy life. My favorite essay is De Officiis III, or On Duties Three. It is the third in a series of philosophical works which were written ostensibly as letters to his son in an effort to show him how to live. In On Duties III, Cicero puts forth a code of morality. He says that in order to determine our actions in any given circumstance, that we must ask ourselves three questions.

1. Is a thing morally right or wrong?

2. Is it advantageous or disadvantageous?

3. If apparent right and apparent advantage clash, what is to be the basis for our choice between them?

His assertion, much like that of Spencer W. Kimball in The Miracle of Forgiveness, is that true advantage and true morality can never be separated. While Kimball discusses this in terms of repentance and some people who claim to be better off having sinned and repented, Cicero says that any action which is truly advantageous by definition is truly morally correct. He says that since men don't have perfect knowledge that they still have "second class obligations", essentially that they are still obligated to judge advantage and morality to the best of their ability.

Cicero qualifies this by saying that the ability to be perfectly moral is therefore dependent on having a perfect knowledge. If you can't perfectly understand the consequences of your actions, then you can't determine whether they are truly advantageous or not, and thus cannot determine whether they are truly moral. So, you can see why I like this kind of argument. This means that some actions which are conventionally considered immoral can become moral if the result of those actions are truly advantageous. We see this kind of dilemma rather often in the scriptures, in the Book of Abraham when God instructs Abraham to lie about Sarai, the killing of Laban, and elsewhere no doubt. So it is clear that the commandments we have been given are given because they are almost always moral, not because they are immutably so. An example my friend D-Train always used to put forth is, if it's 1942 and the SS knocks on your door and asks if you are hiding any Jews, you best tell them no whether you are or not.

Cicero states that each man ought to identify his own interest with the interest of all. So an individual's morality is based on the advantage of the group, not necessarily on personal advantage. He states that all men have identical interests and by helping each other we help the body politic of which we are a part, and thus help ourselves. This sort of attitude, if enacted, works wonders.

Cicero states that any instance in which there is an apparent difference between right and advantage, it is simply due to a mistake. We cannot properly interpret the situation because we lack that perfect knowledge. He states that this binding of advantage and right is the law of nature and that nothing can deviate from it.

So as you can see, the parallels between Cicero and LDS thought are pretty big. Cicero, having died a few years before Christ was born, wasnt a Christian or even a monotheist but he seems to have arrived at quite a few brilliant moral conclusions several decades before the adult ministry of Christ and 1800 years before Joseph Smith. We have been told by revelation and by the Prophets to search out the best books. Was Cicero divinely inspired? I dont know. But I know that the fact that I read his works has been advantageous to me, and therefore good.

Wednesday, December 07, 2005

Innaugural Post


Welcome to De Rerum Natura. This site will be a home to discussions of doctrine, culture, and the relationship between mormondom and the classical world.